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Discussion Starter #1
Hello everyone,



I have recently set up a new planted tank. I have been out of the hobby for several years but recently got the itch. I previously had a tank set up but had lots of algae issues and eventually gave up out of frustration. I feel like I am close to that again which is very discouraging.



This time, I have a Fluval Spec V set up. I will list some more details below:


Tank: Fluval Spec V (all-in-one 5 gallon set up with built in filter compartment)
Light: Current USA Satellite Plus Pro
CO2: Pressurized (approx 1.5 pH drop, probably too much as my betta gets lethargic during CO2 hours)
Stock: Betta
Substrate: Aquasoil
Weekly maintenance: 50% WC, rinse filter media

Fertilizer: DIY solution (ppm per week below)
N: 15 P: 2 K: 20 Fe: 0.5 (as CSM-B)

One of the benefits of the Current USA Satellite Plus Pro is its adjustability, however I just can't seem to find the balance with this thing. Either my plants are growing slowly and sparsely, or they become covered with hair/fuzz/thread type algae. I don't have any livestock that eats algae in the tank (amanos, etc), but I feel like I should be able to find this balance without having to rely on algae eating organisms.

I need help. I'm begging for help. I don't really know what to do next. I have tried changing light intensity but as I stated earlier, can't find that balance. I think I need to be more patient and not keep changing things so much, but I don't know where to start. I feel that when I start my lights too low, the plants grow poorly making them weak, then when I ramp my light up, the plants are vulnerable and the algae attacks.

I'm wondering if anyone has used this specific light on this specific tank perhaps? Would be really helpful to know what % you have the light on if so. Please help me! Thank you!

 

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You said this setup is new, but how long are we talking here? Also it might be helpful to post a photo.
 

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The answer is fairly simple, it's just not fun: assuming your fertilizers and co2 are correct, and that your light is strong enough for your tank height and plants, your light should only be on long enough per day yo grow your plants and not algae. For a new tank, this could be a max of two hours a day for a few months.

Secondly, make sure you are actually doing your water changes and siphoning up detritus regularly.
 

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Discussion Starter #4
You said this setup is new, but how long are we talking here? Also it might be helpful to post a photo.

It is very new. The tank has been set up since January, however I only started the plants/co2/fertilizer in June. So probably only a month or so with plants. Here are some photos:


IMG-8629(1).jpg

IMG-8630.jpg

IMG-8631.jpg

IMG-8632.jpg

The answer is fairly simple, it's just not fun: assuming your fertilizers and co2 are correct, and that your light is strong enough for your tank height and plants, your light should only be on long enough per day yo grow your plants and not algae. For a new tank, this could be a max of two hours a day for a few months.

Secondly, make sure you are actually doing your water changes and siphoning up detritus regularly.

I have not considered this. I have my light on for 6 hours per day as I have read that is the minimum for plant health. I have been leaving it at 6 hours but decreasing intensity to try to find the balance. I did not realize I could potentially try stronger light for more robust growth for only two hours per day. I guess I would do this mainly until I was able to increase plant mass and then slowly increase it?



That brings up another thing I have thought about: how long should I wait between making changes? Should I change something then wait two weeks to see if there are effects? Is that too long/too quick? Thanks again for your help!
 

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Check my pictures to confirm my tips

My tips:
1-dont let the airstone on during light period. While the plants are doing photosynthesis and acquiring CO2 from your system, they are already producing O2 for your tank. PLUS the airstone will make your CO2 evaporate and plants wont catch it.

2- lightning period of 6 hours for new tanks, 8 hours if required by plants and 12h in case of specific necessities of your tank.

3- try having plants like the floating ones and those which get their nutrients from water the column, this tactic will make the algae fight with these plants for nutrients and won't grow up

4- snails, shrimps, loaches, catfish will take of it, only in certain quantities cause you dont want to level up the nitrites and overstock.

5- liquid fertilizers + strong light + long light period = algae

6- NEVER FIGHT YOUR TANK (choose the right plants, right light time and spectrum, right dosage of anything...) that will create harmony in your system

%PICTURES:
First: Timer with airstone at night and Co2 + light at day.

Second: hygrophila (water nutrient catcher), snails, and duck weed (floating plant)


Third: anacharis (water nutrient catcher) and shrimps


Fourth: dojo loach and the airstone turned off during day time


Sent from my SM-G973U using Tapatalk
 

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I think that you have 80-100 PAR at ~10", so I'd tend to want a short photoperiod initially, as @Ddrizzle mentioned.

The smaller the tank, the more sensitive it is to variation. This may or may not be the solution, but I would try the following:

Reduce the water change amount to maybe 10% twice a week until things stabilize, A 50% water change is going to give you a big CO2 variation once a week, which is ok when you have a good, stable plant mass. The Aquasoil is going to throw parameters off for a while, so you may have to adjust water changes to compensate. Again, the watchwords for parameters are: stable, stable, stable. Initially, you would also probably benefit from an Excel treatment to tamp the algae down until you have a month or two behind you. I'd do a half ml/gal right after each water change.

You are probably overdoing it with the CO2, as your Betta is telling you. It's more important to have stable CO2 than high CO2. A 1 point pH drop should be plenty and I'd run it 24/7.

Test for NO3, PO4, GH, KH and TDS if you can. Between your dosing and the substrate you may have balance issues that would need to be brought under control. The Aquasoil may eliminate the need for some dosing.

Good circulation and gas exchange are also important.
 

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I think that you have 80-100 PAR at ~10", so I'd tend to want a short photoperiod initially, as @Ddrizzle mentioned.



The smaller the tank, the more sensitive it is to variation. This may or may not be the solution, but I would try the following:



Reduce the water change amount to maybe 10% twice a week until things stabilize, A 50% water change is going to give you a big CO2 variation once a week, which is ok when you have a good, stable plant mass. The Aquasoil is going to throw parameters off for a while, so you may have to adjust water changes to compensate. Again, the watchwords for parameters are: stable, stable, stable. Initially, you would also probably benefit from an Excel treatment to tamp the algae down until you have a month or two behind you. I'd do a half ml/gal right after each water change.



You are probably overdoing it with the CO2, as your Betta is telling you. It's more important to have stable CO2 than high CO2. A 1 point pH drop should be plenty and I'd run it 24/7.



Test for NO3, PO4, GH, KH and TDS if you can. Between your dosing and the substrate you may have balance issues that would need to be brought under control.



Good circulation and gas exchange are also important.
In my quote i forgot to add the CO2 overdosing fact, i turn my co2 for 2 hours daily only and as u can in the pictures, im propagating and planta are going crazy lol, growing a lot

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Ok, one month in means that your algae issues are right on schedule! Don't get discouraged yet, because it's really, really normal to have algae problems at this point. Usually the diatoms/brown algae shows up first and then other forms have their moment in the sun. I found this video really helpful for giving me a framework to understand algae growth:


I have low tech Walstad-style tanks, but even though he's not talking about that system specifically, the bottom line is the same: get a mass of healthy plants growing, and your algae problems will resolve.

Right now you are figuring out your nutrient/light/CO2 balance (which I can't really help you with specifically, but other people will), but there's another factor to keep in mind: your plants are all new and converting from emersed to submersed growth. Getting through this process can be *rough* because it is stressful and slows your plants down and can cause a lot more melting or unhealthy plant tissue and these things are great for algae. The sooner you have all submersed growth, the happier you will be.

In the meantime, you might really consider getting a cleanup crew to help you out. Don't tie your hands behind your back because in theory you shouldn't need them, try to stack the deck in your favor!
 

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Some valid advice above. However, hair/fuzz algae is typically too much Fe. Diatoms and green dust algae are the typical types you see go in phases of a new tank set up.

At some point you might try backing csmb down to .3 per week or so. And personally Id go with 3 ppm PO4 per week instead of 2. Is the soil new too, as in June? If so do 5 ppm po4/week for the next month or so. Fresh soil sucks up tons of PO4

Your plants look OK to me, which is a good sign. Keep everything super clean, 70% water changes instead of 50 wouldnt be a bad idea either
 

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To add personal experience instead of the light rule I mentioned above... I have the same light and tank height as you (almost) and I had the same issue you did until my tank filled out with about 50% of it being plant mass.

I was just telling people how I went four weeks without a water change in another thread because I know my tank well enough at this point. I didn't fertilize in the last two. By the end of the fourth week, I JUST started getting algae and performed a very large 70% water change. Due to the type of algae that popped up (a couple black beard) my best guess was a dirty tank (very high TDS, other measurements OK), not unhealthy plants (per past experience). Made sense.

At that same moment I also cut off about 50% of my fast growing plants out. Guess what? A week later I had green spot algae for the first time in months (black beard dissappearEd so I knew the tank water was clean enough). I attribute that to the loss of plant mass and the reduced allelopathy to keep the algae away. Nothing else changed.

High, healthy plant mass = no algae. You don't have this yet.
 

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Your plants couldn’t care less if they get 10hr @60% or 6hr @100%. A photon is a photon. Light energy is accumulative.

Slightly slower but still healthy growth IMHO is preferable, less times between pruning.
 

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Do we actually know that? That's making a big assumption that all plants are able to take in photons and process them at the same rate. Right? We already know this is not the case for things like hard water minerals for hard vs soft water plants.
 

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Discussion Starter #13
Some valid advice above. However, hair/fuzz algae is typically too much Fe. Diatoms and green dust algae are the typical types you see go in phases of a new tank set up.

At some point you might try backing csmb down to .3 per week or so. And personally Id go with 3 ppm PO4 per week instead of 2. Is the soil new too, as in June? If so do 5 ppm po4/week for the next month or so. Fresh soil sucks up tons of PO4

Your plants look OK to me, which is a good sign. Keep everything super clean, 70% water changes instead of 50 wouldnt be a bad idea either

Thank you for your advice, Burr. I have read a lot of your posts over the years as you appear to have had a ton of success and I have always found it interesting that your troubleshooting typically involve nutrient titration. This seems to go against Tom Barr's EI theory at a superficial level but I think it probably doesn't truly because EI assumes high plant mass, which I do not have, correct? Regardless, I trust you as I've seen your success over the years so I will give this a try as well. My aquasoil was added probably around February, but I haven't started dosing ferts until last month. Would you try the Fe change first since my plants look healthy, or does too much P not usually cause algae issues?




High, healthy plant mass = no algae. You don't have this yet.

I have suspected this as being a large part of my problem, however what I can't figure out is how to get to the point of having high, healthy plant mass. I haven't ever considered going below a 6 hour photoperiod as you tend to see 6-10 hours quoted online, so maybe that will help... 2 hours at high intensity light or something.



Since you have the same light as me with approximately the same height, I would be interested to know your settings. Are you running it at 100% in all White/R/G/B?



Your plants couldn’t care less if they get 10hr @60% or 6hr @100%. A photon is a photon. Light energy is accumulative.

Slightly slower but still healthy growth IMHO is preferable, less times between pruning.

I see 6-10 hours cited frequently on this and other sites. How about 2 hours of high intensity light (~120-135 par), as suggested above? It's very interesting to me and I'd like to try that, unless others feel that would be starving my plants of light.



Thanks for all the help!
 

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Your plants couldn’t care less if they get 10hr @60% or 6hr @100%. A photon is a photon. Light energy is accumulative.
Personally I don't think that is true and certainly not for all plants. Plants requiring high-intensity light will not receive it no matter how long the lights are on. If that was the case there would be no reason to buy stronger lighting when you could just run your weaker lights longer (which would please most people.) When plants are shaded in our tanks or even outdoors some will die off even though they are receiving some light all day.
 

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Personally I don't think that is true and certainly not for all plants. Plants requiring high-intensity light will not receive it no matter how long the lights are on. If that was the case there would be no reason to buy stronger lighting when you could just run your weaker lights longer (which would please most people.) When plants are shaded in our tanks or even outdoors some will die off even though they are receiving some light all day.
Your plants couldn’t care less if they get 10hr @60% or 6hr @100%. A photon is a photon. Light energy is accumulative.

Slightly slower but still healthy growth IMHO is preferable, less times between pruning.
Yeah, it depends on how much light your 100% is as well as the needs of your individual plants.

Plants have a limit to how many photons they can use in a given time. They have a limited number of photoreceptors, and it takes time and resources for the plant to capture the energy from each photon, so past a certain point additional light is useless to the plant and can be harmful. (Excess light is less damaging for aquatic plants because the water is protective, but they still can't use it and spurs algae growth.)

So, here's a ridiculous example: I have a plant that needs the energy of 100 photons per day and a light that I can make whatever intensity I want. If the plant can handle a maximum of 20 photons an hour, then you can run your light at 20 photons/hour for 5 hours, or 10 photons/hour for 10 hours and it won't make a difference, you get your 100 photons either way and the plant is good. But if you run the light at 50 photons/hour for 3 hours, even though the plant is being hit with 150 photons, it can only use 60 of them, so it's going to have a deficit, and possibly negative effects from the excess light. If you run the light 24/7 at 2 photons/hour, it's only going to get 48 photons a day and have a bigger deficit.

Obviously actual plant light needs are much, much higher, but the principle is the same. The tricky part is we have no way of knowing what our plants precise needs are nor the exact amount of light they are getting. We have to triangulate with stuff like PAR values and information about the plants we have, but nothing beats looking your actual plants in your actual setup and seeing how they are responding.
 

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Discussion Starter #17
If you havent dosed ferts til recently the PO4 action is still going on. Personally, I'd raise that before doing anything else (fert-wise)
I guess I should try this then. The substrate is “UP Aquasoil,” a brand out of somewhere in Asia that I have come across. It is not ADA, it is a bit cheaper so I went with that. Not sure if it will have the same phos-lowering effects (I imagine all aquasoils would?), but it’s definitely worth a try.
 

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I guess I should try this then. The substrate is “UP Aquasoil,” a brand out of somewhere in Asia that I have come across. It is not ADA, it is a bit cheaper so I went with that. Not sure if it will have the same phos-lowering effects (I imagine all aquasoils would?), but it’s definitely worth a try.
Yeah all aquasoil types do that. Adding extra PO4 will really make a big difference during the first couple of months. Try an extra 5 ppm all at once after doing a water change, then the normal dose throughout the week
 

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I've dealt with alage many times at this point. My most recent discovery is that I can put my light on 100% for an hour or two depending on how I feel for about 5-7 days and it will get rid of the algae while barely affecting the plants.

Some of the faster grows like rotala do slow down in that time, but there isn't another healthy option imo. Get rid of the algae while your plants grow, do big water changes to make sure it's not over fertilization. Now be careful here because if you dont have newer aquasoil and haven't fertilized, the problem could be lack of ferts. However, if you're plants look healthy and are growing this is likely not the issue.

To be clear, I've done 5 day blackouts and my tank was still fine. The algae straight up dissapeared but the faster growers shrunk a bit. The method above worked to get rid of algae while putting less of a dent in my plant growth.

As for dealing with dosing + aquasoil, I think the theory from reading walstad's book is that if your plants are rooted, you don't need to worry about the soil sucking up any type of good nutrient from the water column. The soil does its job to collect nutrients for the roots while the roots keep that area of the soil healthy. Plants like buce and anubias that don't root in the soil probably don't have the same nutrient requirements as they grow slower.

The ecology of this stuff is fascinating and I highly suggest picking up walsrad's book. If you take the time to read it you'll understand the entire tank on a deeper level and lots of questions just aren't issues anymore.

Simply put, a natural environment just takes care of itself. You just need to take care of the inputs (food) and outputs (water change) because nature can't do that here. You need to get your plants to the point they can perform their role, especially if you're trying to speed the process up with ferts and co2.
 
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