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Picture 1: The brown fibers appear to be java moss rhizomes, not algae. It's their version of roots.

Picture 2: GSA. Caused by insufficient phosphate, too much light, or too long a photoperiod. Probably the phosphate in your case since you took a break on ferts. Keep cleaning it off, and see if rate of regrowth slows as your tank adjusts to the new parameters.

Picture 3: Try rubbing one of the large green spots near the waterline off. If it's soft, slimy, and smells bad, it's BGA. Otherwise, harmless. BGA is toxic, consumes disproportionately large amounts of nitrates, and can form symbiotic relationships with other algae; all of which can cause problems beyond just being unsightly.

Picture 4: Yep, BBA. Low CO2, high organic wastes, and unhealthy plant leaves (which release organic wastes) contribute to its growth. Assuming your tank conditions are now good, the plants have the potential to recover, and BBA will stop appearing. However, the BBA acts as a parasite to the plant, which can keep it unhealthy despite good tank conditions. Trim away the worst of it, if possible. Spot treat the rest with H2O2 or Excel. Or do a whole-tank Excel overdose of 2-3x. I'd recommend looking up details on these treatments if you've never done one before. Not all plants tolerate Excel, and dosing too much of either can cause problems.
 

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The green spots: I wouldn't say they are slimey, more "hairy" kinda like the spots on my tank walls. Definitely soft though. But no notable foul odor-it didn't make me flinch or anything. Could it be GSA, like on the walls? That is the only spot that it appears in bigger patches-maybe b/c I clean the walls and have just left the filter alone? It's had more time to grow.
Hard to tell from that description; but if it's not clearly BGA, I wouldn't worry about it.

I will trim all the bad spots away this water change and spot treat. Will an overdose of excel hurt my shrimps?
I don't keep shrimp, but I know some people have had problems with Excel overdoses and the more sensitive shrimp species.

Any spot treatment turns into a whole-tank treatment the instant you turn the filters back on; and since a normal Excel dose is so small, you're extremely limited to how much you can spot treat with it. H2O2 spot treatments are easier to work with, at 2ml/G (or 2 tbsp/10G) for a typical safe dose, or half that if you want to be extra cautious.
 

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Ghost shrimp I think are pretty hardy. And if not... well, at least they're cheap. :hihi:

Excel treatment is continued until you're happy with the results. I'll usually use it up to a week. At that point, if it hasn't worked, I up the dose or try something else.
 
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