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Is there a rule of thumb when my bubbler for my 29gallon planted tank should be on or off during the day and night? When's the best time to put Flourish Excel in the tank?
 

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Is there a rule of thumb when my bubbler for my 29gallon planted tank should be on or off during the day and night?
I assume you mean an air bubbler, not a CO2 diffuser.

In theory, on at night, off during the day. You want it on when O2 levels get too low. Plants generate O2 when there is enough light to drive photosynthesis. In the dark they just comsume O2. So, O2 is likely to be at its lowest levers in the early morning hours. You could try running it from 2:00 - 5:00 am.

Some people don't run it at all unless they notice their fish hovering at the surface breathing hard in the early morning.

When's the best time to put Flourish Excel in the tank?
In the morning just when the lights come on.
 

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And if increased Oxygen was the only reason that you have the air bubbler in there then
it really doesn't need to be running in the daylight hrs. unless you have a higher then normal stocking level.
But if your tank might need some extra water movement to help distribute the ferts or
carbon that you are getting from the Excel, if you have noticed any dead spots in there
where the water movement is very little, then it also doesn't hurt the tank to run it 24/7. It's a different story in those tanks/w injected or DIY CO2.
 

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You can run the airstone 24/7 if you are just using a liquid carbon source like Excel. That doesnt off-gas like real CO2. The added surface agitation can actually help maintain baseline CO2 levels via better gaseous exchange with the atmosphere. Again this is if you are not using pressurized CO2.
 
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