Flow meters for our pressurized co2 system - The Planted Tank Forum
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post #1 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 12:47 AM Thread Starter
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Flow meters for our pressurized co2 system

first of all, you are the lucky one to see this post, there is a porter flowmeter same as the one in video on evilbay, if need one, grab one, they are only a fraction of their original price, but don't be greedy, there are other hobbyists who need it too.
evilbay search key word: PORTER INSTRUMENTS B-125-6

Brooks flowmeters, 1355 flowmeter with R-2-15-AAA, R-2-15-AA glass tubes, PM me for CO2 flow rate / calibration data.

there is a new flow meter that we can use, evil bay key word: Adjustable Oxygen Flow Meter 100 psig
it is key instruments 65mm flow meter for oxygen direct reading at 100 psig, and here is co2 calibration measurement for this flow meter(we can use it for co2 )



back in 2013 I acquired a brooks flowmeter with NRS series 1 high precision metering valve, but only in the last several months have seriously looked into it.
while I did the research, on Brooks, Matheson, Parker, Aalborg/cole Palmer .... , I was puzzling by the dwyer flowmeter, because back in 2013 I didn't see anything dwyer have available for our co2 flow range, but some hobbyists found that the RMA 150 model flowmeter work, and work well, so I added dwyer RMA 150/151 to the new metering valve selection list. But still, I didn't see any thread talking about detail info of the dwyer RMA 150/151, until today, I found this thread:
https://www.plantedtank.net/forums/9...ma150-ssv.html

Now I can let you know besides dwyer, there are more high precision flowmeters can be added to our CO2 pressurized system.

The full list of high precision flowmeters can be found in the metering valve selection thread.
metering valve/flowmeter selection thread.

This is a Parker/porter, tested and took the video today.
It is the Parker low flow needle valve on the flowmeter, the flowmeter tube number is B-125-6

for this particular porter flowmeter, the air volume scale chart(pressure: 0 psig/14.7 Psia), then mulitply by conversion factor from air to co2, now the exact co2 flow volume can be calculated, then....

!!! ADD information conversion factor and pressure setting factor 20200313
The flow chart below is the backbone to calculate the actual flow rate of co2. (the flow rate of co2 is at the 70F, 0 psig volume)
1. This flow chart is the AIR flow rate at 70F, 0 psig(14.7 Psia), to find the air flow rate, get the scale reading on the glass tube where the black glass floating ball is, then find the air flow volume on this chart. To convert to co2 flow volume, the air flow volume X 0.81 (0.81 is the air to co2 conversion factor)
2. for anyone use a diffuser or reactor that require some pressure to push co2 through, this flow chart is not adequate, so a second conversion according to actual pressure need to be calculated.
First, you need to turn the inside glass tube up side down, then turn the flowmeter around, so the valve will be on top at the outlet position(bottom is inlet position). Now the pressure inside the glass tube can be adjusted the same as the regulator output pressure.
Second, according to the pushing through pressure of the diffuser or the reactor, the regulator output pressure can be adjusted to 18.5 psig or 45 psig. The conversion factor for 18.5 psig is 1.5, 33 psig is 1.8, and for 45 psig is 2.

actual co2 flow volume at 18.5psig = co2 flow volume X 1.5
actual co2 flow volume at 33psig = co2 flow volume X 1.8
actual co2 flow volume at 45psig = co2 flow volume X 2

example 1:
if you have a cerge reactor, but with a couple 3 psi pushing through inline check valves, the back pressure is about 6 or 7 psi higher than 0 psig, so it is better to turn this porter flowmeter around while the glass tube inside turn around as well. Now you can set the regulator output pressure at 18.5 psig.
After you adjust the flow rate, the glass floating ball settle at 28.0 scale position.
according to flow chart, air flow volume at 28.0 position is 5.20sccm(cc/m), convert to co2 volume is 5.20sccm X 0.81, then convert to pressure setting at 18.5psig is 5.20sccm X 0.81 X 1.5 = 6.32 sccm
so the actual co2 flow volume is 6.32 sccm

example 2:
if you have an atomic type diffuser, require around 25-30 psi push through pressure, might as well turn around the glass tube and the flowmeter, then keep the regulator output pressure as well as the pressure in the glass tube at 45psig.
Now this time you want to set the actual co2 flow volume at 15sccm(cc/m), you can calculate everything backward.

15 sccm = Air flow volume X 0.81 X 2

Air flow volume = 9.26 sccm, according to the chart, the scale reading is 60.0, so you adjust the valve until the glass floating ball settle at 60.0 to achieve 15sccm co2 injection.


All wrong above, please do not follow, my apology.

A flowmeter can be set into two positions, turn around the flowmeter and the glass tube inside.
Position 1: flow control valve at the top(outlet), the pressure inside the glass tube is the same as the regulator output pressure, a steady flow rate at certain regulator output pressure can be monitored, this position is more useful/practical to read the actual co2 flow rate in our application.
Position 2: flow control valve at the bottom(inlet), the pressure inside the glass tube is the same as down the flow line pressure, 0 psig can be achieved in this position.

here is the real co2 flow rate data at 1 ATM (0 psig, or 14.7 psia, 70 degree), for Parker/Porter flow meter B-125-6.
scale --flow rate(SCCM), flow meter position 2.
1 --4.22
2 --5.47
3 --8.17
4 --11.04
5 --13.3
6 --15.5
7 --18.33
8 --21.7
9 --25.5
10 --28.3
11 --31
12 --34.5
13 --37.5
14 --42
15 --46
and I will measure the actual co2 flow rate under different pressure.



ADD:, 20200322
(bear with me, too long to read, :P)
The precision flowmeters enable us to control the exact amount of co2 injection to our planted tank, so as well laying the path for new co2 injection methods.
--With the flow meter, we know the exact flow rate of the co2; In addition, once the total time of injection is given, we know the exact amount of co2; now, plus the given water volume, we can calculate the increased CO2 ppm!

The whole calculation process omitted, but the result is here:
if co2 dissolve into water at 100% efficiency, to increase from 0ppm to 20 ppm:

Actual co2 flow rate = 6.4 sccm X (water volume in gallon/ 10 gallon) / (Total hours of injection)

6.4 sccm(cc/m, 0 psig, 70F) co2 flowrate in one hour will increase co2 concentration from 0 to 20 ppm in 10 gallon of water.
3.2 sccm(cc/m, 0 psig, 70F) co2 flowrate in two hours will increase co2 concentration from 0 to 20 ppm in 10 gallon of water.
1.6 sccm(cc/m, 0 psig, 70F) co2 flowrate in four hours will increase co2 concentration from 0 to 20 ppm in 10 gallon of water.
16 sccm(cc/m, 0 psig, 70F) co2 flowrate in two hours will increase co2 concentration from 0 to 20 ppm in 50 gallon of water.
16 sccm(cc/m, 0 psig, 70F) co2 flowrate in four hours will increase co2 concentration from 0 to 20 ppm in 100 gallon of water.
...


In normal condition, the co2 concentration in water is 0-10 ppm, and planted tank hobbyists normally aim for 20+ ppm co2 in their tanks(but no more than 30ppm).
now with a precision flow meter, how much co2 in volume and its increased concentration in the planted tank can be predicted

and

From this point we can derive the new co2 injection methods:

method 1, single injection.
The co2 injection starts before the light turns on, concentration of co2 in the water will reach its peak, at 20+ ppm around the time light turns on. The injection rate depends on light intensity and mass of the plants in the planted tank, need observation to set the actual flow rate. Higher the injection rate, shorter the start time before light turns on, vise versa.
example 1.
for a high light, heavy planted 50 gallon tank, the co2 injection rate can be set at 8 sccm four hours before the light turns on. when the light turns on, the co2 concentration is 20+ ppm at its peak, and will stay or slowly lower down with continuous 8 sccm injection.
example 2.
for a medium light, moderate planted 50 gallon tank, the co2 injection rate can be set at 4 sccm eight hours before the light turns on, the co2 concentration will reach its peak(20+ ppm) when the light turns on, and will stay or slowly lower down with continuous 4 sccm injection.

The core for method one is to maintain a safe co2 injection rate, while the 20-30ppm co2 concentration can be achieved by starting the co2 injection early before the lights on.


method 2, dual solenoids injection.
this setup require two solenoids, first solenoid connects to timer that turn on/off before the light turns on. Second solenoid can be kept on the same schedule as lights.

1.when first solenoid is on, the co2 flow rate is decided by metering valve 1 on the flowmeter, this metering valve must be set for larger flow rate.
*Second solenoid on or off is not matter while the first solenoid is on.
*First solenoid and metering valve 1 are in control to increase/boost CO2 concentration to 20+ppm.

2.When first solenoid is off, second solenoid is on, the co2 flow rate decided by metering valve 2.
*This flow rate is on small flow rate, to replenish the lost/decrease co2 ppm in the water column.
*second solenoid is on while the light turns on.

3.when both solenoid are off, co2 flow stop.


example 1.
for a high light, heavy planted 150 gallon tank, two hours before the light turns on, first solenoid is on and co2 injection rate at 48 sccm set by metering valve 1.(or 96 sccm co2 injection for one hour)
when the light turns on, co2 concentration in the water is 20-30 ppm, now the first solenoid is off, second solenoid is on while the metering valve 2 set at 24 sccm flow rate.

example 2.
for a low light, moderate planted 50 gallon tank, the co2 injection rate can be set by metering valve 1 at 16 sccm while solenoid 1 turn on for 2 hours, to increase the co2 concentration to 20-30 ppm, then solenoid 1 turn off.
Solenoid 2 turn on, this time the metering valve 2 control the co2 flow rate at 4 sccm, for the lights on injection.

Diagram 1.
2 solenoids, 1 flowmeter with valve, 1 metering valve. The metering valves must be placed AFTER the flowmeter, so the desired/set pressure can be hold steady in the glass tube/flowmeter. Metering valve 1 large flow rate, metering valve 2 small flow rate.


Diagram 2.
2 solenoids, 2 flowmeters with valves. The metering valves flow rate are independent in this setup.


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post #2 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 01:01 AM Thread Starter
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some pictures.

In picture are Matheson, Brooks, Porter/Parker, cole palmer/aalborg high precision model flowmeters. They are precise then the one in video above, because these are with high precision cartridges metering valves.


need to convert to co2 volume under different pressure ....




and I will use this one, for my planted tank.





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post #3 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 01:02 AM
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Interesting.

I started a thread about the Dwyer flow meters back in 2015, and there are quite a few using them here now.

What would be the advantage of something like flow meter in the video above.......and what is the approximate cost?
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post #4 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 01:28 AM Thread Starter
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now I know that was you first showed the others the flowmeter, hat off to you .

the different brand of high precision flowmeters are about $200 or more a piece, if with high precision cartridge metering valve, cost much more, but evilbay is still the virgin land of these liquidated or used flow meters, you can grab them as low as $20 a piece, same situation as back in 2011, metering valves were abundant and cheap....

get a couple good one, and pass the info around to fellow friend hobbyists, so they will have them too, before the evilbay dry up.


these high precision flowmeters open a whole new method injecting co2, because the exact injected co2 flow rate is known, so the total volume, then added PPM can be calculated.

no bubble counter or Ph monitor needed.

15 SCCM injection for a little bit more than two hours wll rise concentration of co2 in 50G water by 20ppm.... get the idea?


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post #5 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 11:19 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Bettatail View Post
these high precision flowmeters open a whole new method injecting co2, because the exact injected co2 flow rate is known, so the total volume, then added PPM can be calculated.

no bubble counter or Ph monitor needed.

15 SCCM injection for a little bit more than two hours wll rise concentration of co2 in 50G water by 20ppm.... get the idea?
I get that but IMO it's not that simple.

When I went from high KH softened well water to very low KH RO water, my CO2 consumption rate changed as well.

And then you have different methods of diffusion, different levels of surface agitation.....different levels of everything.

IME, the best feature of using a flow meter is fine tuning relative CO2 flow. While knowing absolute values would be interesting, I don't think that would translate well from one tank to another.


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post #6 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 11:57 AM
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In other words you can get these other options cheaper used because hobbyist don't know to buy them yet because everyone just uses Dwyer.

You had me at cheap.

I picked up that meter on e bay a few minutes ago. I've been in need of a good flow meter for a while now.


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post #7 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 09:06 PM
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Quote:
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In other words you can get these other options cheaper used because hobbyist don't know to buy them yet because everyone just uses Dwyer.

You had me at cheap.

I picked up that meter on e bay a few minutes ago. I've been in need of a good flow meter for a while now.
There is something that anyone who is considering purchasing a used flow meter should be aware of.

There are loads of different flow meters out there, and a tiny percentage have the scale to meet our needs. Many are rated at SCFH.....that is standard cubic feet per hour. We are dealing with cubic centimeters per minute. In flow meter terms, a very, very low flow rate.

So just saying be sure to do the math, because the majority are useless for our purposes. We have a very particular use and flow rate, so make sure you know what you are getting.
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Quote:
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Quote:
Originally Posted by minorhero View Post
In other words you can get these other options cheaper used because hobbyist don't know to buy them yet because everyone just uses Dwyer.

You had me at cheap.

I picked up that meter on e bay a few minutes ago. I've been in need of a good flow meter for a while now.
There is something that anyone who is considering purchasing a used flow meter should be aware of.

There are loads of different flow meters out there, and a tiny percentage have the scale to meet our needs. Many are rated at SCFH.....that is standard cubic feet per hour. We are dealing with cubic centimeters per minute. In flow meter terms, a very, very low flow rate.

So just saying be sure to do the math, because the majority are useless for our purposes. We have a very particular use and flow rate, so make sure you know what you are getting.
I agree, this has been my problem. I have felt there must be meters out there of use to us but have been wary of committing. I already bought one that is useless (worked with water not air) so when someone says there is a cheap alternative they have already tried?? Well I am all about it.
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post #9 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-05-2020, 10:37 PM
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Quote:
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I agree, this has been my problem. I have felt there must be meters out there of use to us but have been wary of committing. I already bought one that is useless (worked with water not air) so when someone says there is a cheap alternative they have already tried?? Well I am all about it.

most work w/ both but the range is the issue...Devil is always in the details..


Quote:
one bubble per second that it .00086 cubic inches per second, or .052 cubic inches per minute. One cubic inch is 16.39 cubic centimeters. So, one bubble per second is about .85 cc per minute. And, I don't think gas flow meters can register that low a flow rate.

You can consider this flow rate to be sccm, standard cubic centimeters per minute, since the gas is essentially at standard atmospheric pressure.

The Cole Parmer Aalborg ect have interchangeable floats soo one can tailor the range to the needs.

Lightest is glass, then sapphire, stainless steel, tantalium, carboloy..


Then there is the valve precision.. or none if you have your own..

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Quote:
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There is something that anyone who is considering purchasing a used flow meter should be aware of.

There are loads of different flow meters out there, and a tiny percentage have the scale to meet our needs. Many are rated at SCFH.....that is standard cubic feet per hour. We are dealing with cubic centimeters per minute. In flow meter terms, a very, very low flow rate.

So just saying be sure to do the math, because the majority are useless for our purposes. We have a very particular use and flow rate, so make sure you know what you are getting.
agree, most of the flowmeters are not for our co2 application, that is why they are rare and no one pay much attention to the flowmeter for our planted tank co2 injection. I have to spend months to do the research, and got a series of useful and not for our planted tank flowmeters.

finally, now this is the thread to show the fellow hobbyists what work and what not.

check the flow tube model number under different major brands in the metering valve selection thread, if still in doubt, there is always PDF to check.

Quote:
Originally Posted by jeffkrol View Post
most work w/ both but the range is the issue...Devil is always in the details..





The Cole Parmer Aalborg ect have interchangeable floats soo one can tailor the range to the needs.

Lightest is glass, then sapphire, stainless steel, tantalium, carboloy..


Then there is the valve precision.. or none if you have your own..

from what I know, bubble size are different in different media, different pressure, also the size is dynamic base on the actual flow rate(fast the bigger).
A bubble double in diameter is 8 times the original volume, and there are many factor contribute to size.

you probably don't see the detail from the video in the first post, bubbles in that inline counter did register as the floating ball goes up, and I did some bubble counting before I took the video, it is about 2 bubbles/second on scale 10.0, which is 2.99sccm air(convert to co2 is 2.99X0.81=2.42sccm), and at scale 50.0 is 4 bubbles per second(7.77sccm airX 0.81= 6.29 sccm CO2). 6.29sccm/2.42sccm= 2.6 , from scale 10.0 to 50.0 the co2 flow rate has increased
2.6 times, but bubble rate only double, because at scale 50.0 the bubbles are larger.

Quote:
Originally Posted by minorhero View Post
I agree, this has been my problem. I have felt there must be meters out there of use to us but have been wary of committing. I already bought one that is useless (worked with water not air) so when someone says there is a cheap alternative they have already tried?? Well I am all about it.
if don't know what are these and what to get, cheap or expensive are not really matter, these flowmeters just have nothing to do with us...
you just got yourself a flow meter about $250, this morning
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I think most people reading this thread are confusing right now, too much unfamiliar concepts and information, feeling overwhelmed....
don't worry, same thing happened to me months ago, took me a while to understand and find out the right flowmeters for our planted tank co2 injection


first, the flowmeter tube models/number in the metering valve selection thread are the low flow capacity from different major industrial brands, they are most often equipped with the high precision metering valve cartridges, if not, the valves should be "normal" low flow control needle valves.
always check the tube number, see if it is the low flow capacity glass tube.

second, the floating ball, there are glass(black), sapphire(red), stainless steel, Carboloy(brown), Tantalum(gray metal), listing from light to heavy because of density, and lighter the floating ball the better low flow rate monitoring capacity.
check PDF for max flow rate of different floating ball material on specific glass tubes.

the Dwyer RMA 150/151 are slightly off the range only if they are for large planted tank, but they are actually the most affordable flowmeters of all the listed model with the right flow tube number, in the metering valve selection thread.
these high precision flow meters are not cheap, they are cheap because not many people know they can be used in co2 low flow volume control.

if more questions, let me know.


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post #12 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-06-2020, 04:25 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Bettatail View Post
I think most people reading this thread are confusing right now, too much unfamiliar concepts and information, feeling overwhelmed....

Well because it is...


Quote:
Originally Posted by Bettatail View Post
first, the flowmeter tube models/number in the metering valve selection thread are the low float capacity from different major industrial brands, they are most often equipped with the high precision metering valve cartridges, if not, the valves should be "normal" low flow control needle valves.
always check the tube number, see if it is the low float capacity glass tube.

second, the floating ball, there are glass(black), sapphire(red), stainless steel, Carboloy(brown), Tantalum(gray metal), listing from light to heavy because of density, and lighter the floating ball the lower the flow rate monitoring capacity.
check PDF for max flow rate of different floating ball material on specific glass tubes.

I rest my case..


Quote:
Originally Posted by Bettatail View Post
the Dwyer RMA 150/151 are slightly off the range only if they are for large planted tank
Technically that has been the "standard operating procedure" for awhile..If you can't count the bubbles switch to flowmeter..

If you want a flowmeter for low flow tanks .. countable bubble rate.. see confusion above..


A lot of those precision aalborgs (and clones/relabeled) w/ the correct tube diameter have stainless steel floats as standard at least in my experience.. putting them at the low range of usefulness for a few bubbles /sec


One has to estimate expected flow rate before determining "the best" tube/float combination.
Then the precision of delivery via metering valve and not getting one too small (won't match expected flow) or too large (low precision).
This isn't meant to scare people since even hit/miss can work but to identify all aspects of this decision.
Chart below gives an example of this.


Max flow rates by tube and float size. Still need a valve or use valveless w/ your own metering valve.
sorry, smaller than anticipated. see pdf:
http://www.aalborg.com/images/file_t...nformation.pdf

bubble counters, though horribly imprecise and less functional at times have really no limit besides the system orifices.. i.e max delivery of the metering valve.
Flowmeters have restrictions on both the tube and the valve..


As a personal note: Aalborg has been more than generous providing alternate floats and Cole/Parmer sells some as well.
Putting them in and not losing one or getting it dirty is sometimes a challenge..
YMMV.


.

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jeff, the chart only show the maximum flow monitoring capacity of specific tubes, the calibration data are in independent pages for specific tube, floating ball material, and pressure setting.
alway pick tube number and ball material(glass is best) first if want to find the right flowmeter for co2 flow rate monitoring,
I think any tube number and floating ball material combo with max flow monitoring capacity under 10Litter/hour of air flow rate, is good for our use.


and for aalborg/cole palmer flowmeters, the high precision interchangeable cartridges are often mark with the number on top of the valve cap, 1, 2, 3, or MFV 1, MFV 2, MFV 3, are really good, if the number are in 4-6 range, not that good for us to dial in the co2 flow rate. also, if the number mark on the valve cap is 7, 8, or 9, pick 7, because from 7 to 9, the valves are "normal" needle valve, the number 7 is the low flow control needle valve.

some others are good too, brooks instrument(sho-rate flowmeter), omega, matheson,...

cole palmer official website is rather confusing if you want to find the detail spec of the low flow flowmeters. compare to cole palmer, aalborg(cole palmer and aalborg are the same) is better, then the brooks instruments, and the best is matheson official website, parker/porter website has the information hiding, but once locate the right page, a full list of calibration data will appears.


I don't want you to order the flowmeters from aalborg/cole palmer, they are expensive, but try your luck on evilbay is a good way to find one, but need to make sure it is the right one.

check the below chart, it is the matheson FM1050 flowmeter with tube 601, flow rate data for co2. the range of flow rate covers from single digit to hundred sccm, which means the co2 flow rate can be precisely control and monitor for our small to very large planted tank.
I will test this flowmeter(FM1050, 601 tube), and show you the result, I have one but not yet hook it up to the co2 system.



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post #14 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-06-2020, 05:47 PM
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jeff, the chart only show the maximum flow monitoring capacity of specific tubes, the calibration data are in independent pages for specific tube, floating ball material, and pressure setting.
alway pick tube number and ball material(glass is best) first if want to find the right flowmeter for co2 flow rate monitoring,
I think any tube number and floating ball material combo with max flow monitoring capacity under 10Litter/hour of air flow rate, is good for our use.

and for aalborg/cole palmer flowmeters, the high precision interchangeable cartridges are often mark with the number on top of the valve cap, 1, 2, 3, or MFV 1, MFV 2, MFV 3, are really good, if the number are in 4-6 range, not that good for us to dial in the co2 flow rate. also, if the number mark on the valve cap is 7, 8, or 9, pick 7, because from 7 to 9, the valves are "normal" needle valve, the number 7 is the low flow control needle valve.

some others are good too, brooks instrument(sho-rate flowmeter), omega, matheson,...

cole palmer official website is rather confusing if you want to find the detail spec of the low flow flowmeters. compare to cole palmer, aalborg(cole palmer and aalborg are the same) is better, then the brooks instruments, and the best is matheson official website, parker/porter website has the information hiding, but once locate the right page, a full list of calibration data will appears.


I don't want you to order the flowmeters from aalborg/cole palmer, they are expensive, but try your luck on evilbay is a good way to find one, but need to make sure it is the right one.

check the below chart, it is the matheson FM1050 flowmeter with tube 601, flow rate data for co2. the range of flow rate covers from single digit to hundred sccm, which means the co2 flow rate can be precisely control and monitor for our small to very large planted tank.
I will test this flowmeter(FM1050, 601 tube), and show you the result, I have one but not yet hook it up to the co2 system yet.

Yea I know that but it determines the range of the tube and at what end of the scale you are using..
If you have flow rate (est.) of "6" and you have a max pressure of "140" w/ 140 graduated you are functioning at the low end of the scale.
Ideally one wants mid range since most things work best that way..


Secondly the valve matters.. as to going from low to shooting the ball to the top w/ a 1/4 turn type thing..


Nit picky..

Like as you noted above..
042-15G(lass)w/ a max of 22.8..
If you are working around 6 that puts you 1/4 of scale.
W/ SS you are running 1/10 of scale..coupled w/ a high flow metering valve and your err "precision" drops a lot.

so ideally one need to know the tube, and the float, and the metering valve..and expected range.
In an IDEAL world..

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post #15 of 109 (permalink) Old 03-06-2020, 06:05 PM Thread Starter
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that is correct, the tube number and floating ball material are important to choose the flowmeter, and the valve too....
the exact co2 flow volume can be monitored, that is why these metering valve are so precise, and expensive...

glad that you grab the idea, now if you want one for your co2 system, but don't want to put much time into flipping over the pdf files, let me know, I will show you the good ones from evilbay.


I think next step for co2 pressurized system upgrade is to play with a mass flow controller....


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