I like to do the full job when I clean things. It is the one way to " reset" all the hazards that might/might not be there. Bugs vermin or various fungus are pretty easy to kill and heat will possibly do it. But it does take a tremendous amount of heating to reach the inside of a piece of wood that is even 4" thick where a snail might have laid eggs. Wood is a pretty good insulator so how long does it take to penetrate to the center? Much longer than I want to wait or keep an oven going.
Oil and pesticides can also be on wood, even when we don't see it. When you warm oil it moves around but doesn't truly come out of the wood.
A simple, easy way to clean large wood that won't fit in a pot is bleach soaking. It has the advantage of actually eliminating oils as well as sterilizing organic things like bugs, fungus, etc. The chlorine reacts with oily stuff so that it is no longer oil.
Bleach soaking is the way the DNR specifies to clean the inside of water towers, etc. after a dozen guys have worked in them so it should do the job for us.
Simple method? Whatever size container that will hold the wood, plastic or metal will do.
Fill with water and then guess/estimate how much bleach will be needed to clean the item. There is no firm answer to how much as it depends on how much dirt, etc. it reacts with while soaking. A half cup or cup full will do in most cases. The only real point is that you do want to have enough to react with all the grime it finds. If you are soaking a tree stump you will want more than if you are soaking a filter sponge to clear it of disease.
A cup of bleach may eat a sponge but if I want to clean a stump, I just use plenty as I'm sure the wood will be there well after all the chlorine has reacted with the wood. No danger of it setting in the wood. Chemical reactions happen as long as the two items are together. Chlorine can't hold it's breathe and come out later!
A soak of 8-10 hours will almost always be enough time for the bleach to reach the center of things but it never hurts to let it soak until you get back around to the project. When you take it out and rinse it, you dilute any remaining bleach down to near the same level as drinking water might have. You can use a dechlor product if you are really rushing but a simple way is to just set the item back and let it dry. When you no longer smell bleach, all the chlorine has gassed off and you are done.
Two important safety items to remember are the type of bleach and don't get it on things like clothing. Use simple, cheap, bleach that doesn't have colors or scents added. We just don't need the question of what those additives might be. If you splash straight bleach on clothing while pouring it, you WILL have holes in your clothes.
When storing bleach, close the lid tight and store it in a cool spot and it will have a shelf life of 6-12 months before the chlorine is gone.