To be honest, if I were you, I would just get a bigger tank. Sounds like you have aspirations for one
What type of plants are you looking to grow? The ones in the tank now, with the exception of maybe the microsword, don't need much light or CO2. It could be rather low tech (low maintenance).
On the other hand, if you wanted to go high tech, you would probably need to spend a lot more time on tank maintenance, water changes, fertilization, and perhaps buy some equipment. This can also be very worthwhile, but only if you want it.
On your filter: Canister filters can be placed next to the tank. Having them under the tank makes it easier to prime and start a siphon.
On your lighting: Your lights are probably fine for a low tech tank, but if you decide to go high tech, I'd recommend AH Supply lights (although I hear they stopped making the 13W kits).
On substrate: You might want to replace your gravel with something more natural looking, or even spring for plant substrate. Granted, it's not absolutely necessary, but it looks nice, and it helps.
On plants: Most vals get far too large for a 10g. They grow quite tall, and will probably block light from the rest of the tank. Any chance you could get a better picture of the swords? Many swords also get too large for a 10g, some get too large for even a 55g. To get your anubias to attach to the driftwood, you could tie it down with some fishing line until it fixes itself.
On fertilizers: Carbon is not necessary in a planted tank. The idea is that fish waste becomes plant nutrients. In fact, many people on this forum add nitrates to the tank, if the plants consume more than the fish can produce. Keep in mind that fish do not produce all the necessary nutrients for plants, and nutrient deficiencies can inhibit plant growth and promote algae growth. Light drives the plant growth. The more light, the faster the growth. But, as light increases, the plants will use more CO2. As CO2 consumption increases, the plants will use up macronutrients (NPK, nitrogen, phosphates, and potassium). Think of these as plant food. In addition to macronutrients, plants will also use up micronutrients, or trace nutrients. Think of these as plant vitamins. If plants are lacking or do not have the correct balance of any of these things, algae may use this to its advantage and use up the excess nutrients the plants cannot.
On fish: Definitely remove the carbon. It will interfere with the ich meds. Make sure you treat the ich long enough, since the ich must be in a certain stage in its life cycle to be affected by the treatment. I feel that you are a bit overstocked. The clown loaches you have in there will grow quite large (a foot and a half), which is about as long as the tank. The leopard pleco you have in the tank will also grow quite large. You may want to reduce the species you have and get more of one species. Fish typically look better in larger groups.
Welcome to the hobby, good luck!