I know it's not precise, but you could use moh's scale of hardness to rule out some things. http://www.amfed.org/t_mohs.htm
In general, if it can scratch glass, it's ok. In general if you can scratch it with a nail, it might be better to leave it out, although you can scratch slates and shales with a nail, and they're ok unless they happen to contain a lot of oil, in which case you can rule them out if you're able to set them on fire.
If you have a hard water tank, like for many african cichlids, then you don't have to worry about adding calciferous rocks.
Anything that looks metallic should not be used.
IMHO, in your pics, the rougher rocks look like sandstone to me. The white one looks a lot like a quartzite. The salt and pepper one could be a granite. I'm not sure what the reddish one and the black ones are, but they look ok.
In your top pic, there's a light grey one with whitish edges and little holes. That definitely looks calciferous. There's also a dark grey one that looks like it has some whitish corners, and it looks a lot like a limestone.
But as people have said, it's not worth losing your fish and or shrimp if you aren't sure what you're using.