You can really do any substrate you want (i.e. gravel, sand, etc). If I were you, I would so with sand. Sand can grow Nitrogen pockets so you will need something to turn over the sand. You could either go with Malaysian Trumpet Snail (Only snail that gets deep in sand bed and turns over sand) or go with stirring your hand in the sand every water change (this destroys Nitrogen pockets).
Lucky bamboo doesn't really need soil at all (I have 2 in a vase with only water in it and it grows fine).
Rocks aren't really necessary unless you want a cool decoration. And if your bamboo aren't really standing up that great on their own, you could use the rocks as support.
Since this tank is not going to be filtered, you are going to need to do a water change once a day or every 2-3 days. By doing so will keep the water clean and ammonia free.
A betta would be a great fish to do in this type of tank. Also, if you are wanting shrimp, try ghost shrimp (Both hardy and if the betta eats them, they are cheap to replace). Maybe if you betta doesn't attack them/eat them, could could try different type of shrimp (Like amano or Red cherry).
Have you looked into Internal filters? I'm sure you will be able to find one that will fit the tank
Well, I'm happy that just sand'll be good. (All my other tanks are sand, so I know the ins and outs of it.
Also, now that you mention it, I do have a small internal filter I can use. I got it to use temporarily for water movement on a pico reef before I upgraded it. Since the tank won't be at capacity, it should handle it.
I'll have to do a bit of hunting to get my shrimp. Lol. For whatever reason, all the shops around here always seem to be out of them.
i've been thinking about doing the same here, but on a larger scale with filtration. either a 20 long or a 29G. been keeping an eye on craigslist for a cheap one...though i'd love to have a rimless for this project.
i've 8 or 9 stalks of lucky bamboo, ranging from 15" to about 36", just sitting in water. they're suuuper easy to keep. putting in a tank with fish...you'll need to worry more about keeping the fish alive than the plants.
I'd enjoy a larger one too, but for the amount of lucky bamboo I want in it, I'd be afraid it'd get a little too pricey if I went any bigger. I dunno. A 10g works for me.
Also, it's not too hard to make a rimless tank out of a standard tank, you just have to take your time and be careful.