Hey Joey, welcome to Planted Tank! Always nice to see a new face here! There are lots of good posts out there already, but let me help get you started:
what kind of substrate to use
Most bags of plant substrate come in pretty big sized bags. You can buy one of these and use half of it, or maybe find someone who is willing to share. I have a big half-full bag of Soilmaster Select Pro "Charcoal" and also about a third of a kitty litter container full of ecoComplete. These are both dark substrates. Soilmaster is courser and lighter weight. EcoComplete is almost as fine as sand and a bit heavier. I'd be happy to ship you a good bag of it for the cost of shipping - just PM me your address. You shouldn't need too much for a nano.
Another thing to consider is that if you go with low light plants like java fern, java moss, anubias and bolbitus, you just need a piece of driftwood to tie them to. Then you can use just plain gravel with no problems.
what kind of lighting ( was planing on getting a desk light )
I've used a desk lamp with a "natural spectrum" screw in PC flourescent bulb before, and I've had pretty good luck for it. I'm sure this would work just fine for you!
what if any fertilizer should i get
Nanos can be tricky. Read up on this. The easiest route will be to go with prepackaged stuff like seachem and then if you move on to bigger and better tanks try dosing dry ferts from Greg Watson.
Now THIS is a can of worms! Basically, a plant is made of carbon, so it needs a source of carbon to grow. Dissolving CO2 in the water is a fertilizer for the plants and does wonders to stimulate healthy growth. People use compressed tanks of CO2 or make their own with a pop or juice bottle, sugar, and yeast. The DIY method is pretty easy, and it is what I'd recommend for your nano. Alternatively, Seachem Flourish Excel provides an organic source of carbon and would work really well in your setup.
what kind of filter should i get
Lots of debate on this. You'll want something that doesn't splash too much though. I'll weigh in and recommend a sponge attached to the intake of a powerhead as your filtration. I believe Wasserpest has a good DIY article about this.
do i need a powerhead
I'd say use a powerhead as your filtration. So, yes.
do i need a bubbler to add air
Nope, your plants will produce plenty of oxygen. If you bubble in air then you'll outgas a lot of the CO2 in the water. Best to just leave this off.
and if i need something else for it please let me know
Well, have you thought about what fish or kritters you'll want in there? Do you know what types of plants you'll want? Do you have driftwood or rock pieces for decoration? Do you have a location picked out?
LOTS of other stuff to consider, but it isn't as hard as it sounds.
You definately came to the right place! Glad to have ya here