If the intake gets clogged it won't empty water from the filter into the tank. For that to happen, there would have to be some way for air to get into the filter to displace the water (like if the water level falls below the filter intake). Even if the filter did somehow manage to empty itself into the tank, that filter only holds like 5 liters of water, which is equivalent to about 3 centimeters of water in the tank. Not much to worry about in my opinion.
So I don't think the real danger is the tank overflowing. Perhaps the plumbing leaking, or filter flow stopping, or something of that nature.
I think putting the filter and other equipment in a plastic tub is a good idea, both for leak protection, and just so you don't get water on the wood while doing maintenance. You could put a water sensor or float switch inside the tub.
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