Not sure for this application. Generally the longer the set time the stronger it ends up being. That being said pretty sure any of the decent two part epoxies should work fine. Application is key, good mixing, is key. If you have a 5 minute working time mix for a good solid minute and have your stuff ready to go, apply and mate up then have a way to hold it in place.
The two part applicators take the work out of mixing properly and thats the way I would go.Good ol JB weld can be a heck of an epoxy if measured, mixed, and applied properly. Gorilla and the other name brands all have good 5-15 minute epoxies at lowes or home depot which should work good for your application assuming they bond to what ever your attaching the wood.