size is a good question... my dominant male is about 4", and still appears to be growing. his fins get longer and darker, and his eyes get more colorful all the time. I've *heard* of "breeder" pairs getting 6" or more, but most of the species profiles on websites and forums report max size around 4.5". I'm sure the keyholes are just as likely to be "stunted" from inadequate accomodations and any other cichlid (discus, angels, and oscars come to mind). It's possible that given ideal conditions from a very young age that most fish would be closer to 6", or it could be that the reports of larger keyholes are just unusually large specimens. In any case, temperment-wise they should be great with rams, assuming the rams aren't nervous nellies (all mine have been). The keyholes won't *hurt* them, but their presence may be enough to stress the more delicate and fussy rams. I've never seen my keyholes bother any other fish, including anomalochromis thomasi (african butterfly cichlid, similar in size and color to rams), pelvicachromis pulcher (kribs), discus, various tetra species, killifish, rainbows, cories, plecos, loaches, or mollies. In fact my kribs successfully raised a spawn in the tank with a young pair of keyholes that were clearing a nest site (i later decided they were both males because there have never been eggs, and the fish i assumed was female has now grown longer fin extensions, and gotten much larger since the addition of two more keyholes that appear quite likely to be females). Anyway, they're known for bonding with other keyholes, even of the same sex, at an early age and never spawning with the opposite gender if they aren't presented with a mate early enough. One website describes a pair of females that laid eggs back and forth with no male to fertilize them. One of the females died or was moved to another tank, and the remaining fish stopped eating, hid most of the time, and eventually died. Back to your original question... if you're planning on getting keyholes, i recommend a minimum 29 gallon tank (55 and up is better) and at least 2 fish, more is better
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