Hey there Jerad,
First off, welcome to the planted world. Like you said, [everyone's] got to start somewhere.
Your set up takes me back 20 years; that's a lot like what we used then. Old school for the win!
A few observations-
CO2: It would be better to fill the bottle with water to about 80% and trim your outlet tube. The extra water will help dilute the negative byproducts and slow pH change. Most yeast can't take low pH and will start dying off.
Current plants: You've got a few sword plants in there that will eventually get huge
. You're better off letting them grow for now, just keep their size in mind for the future.
Ferts/nutrient supplementation: For setups like yours I normally recommend getting Flourish tabs and cutting them into quarters to be planted about 1" away from your plants/plant groups. I wouldn't recommend using terrestrial fertilizer sticks such as Jobe's brand or time release capsules like Osmocote for your tank with the small water volume and not-so-dense substrate (personal experience there). Flourish and Flourish Trace liquids would be an alternative if you prefer to get hands-on.
Misc: You may want to consider getting some floating plants such as Frogbit (Limnobium laevigatum) or Red Root Floater (Phyllanthus fluitans) to help soak up nutrients in the water column and provide a little shade until things start growing stronger. Salvinia minima is an option that's common in the hobby, but many states frown on keeping Salvinia due to a few species being terribly invasive weeds. That may not be a problem in the Dakotas where you get hard freezes in the winter, but in this case it's better to be safe than sorry. If you're not keen on floating plants, letting your lily throw out surface leaves wouldn't hurt until you get a good handle on your light/CO2 balance.
Future plants: With your current lighting and CO2 you'll do well with Anubias, Bolbitis, Cryptocoryne, Java Fern, Java Moss, Wisteria, Bacopa, and most species of Ludwigia except peruensis (the big pretty purple one). Rotalas can be a bit finicky with old-school style setups like yours, but the bread-and-butter species should do ok. Dwarf Hairgrass may do well or may do poorly and become an algae trap in your setup. It's a coin toss. Marsilea species (go by XYZ clover in stores) will do well but not grow as fast. Micro Sword (Lilaeopsis brasiliensis) is another foreground option.
Hope this helps,