Rafel in Poland is one person who I know is doing some work, mostly trial and error, work but has made some interesting theories about colors, etc.
This is his site. http://www.kumakshrimp.com/en/articles.html
Which sort of goes along the lines of what was shown in this thread, amano shrimp pics
The cherry shrimp in the above thread, has small yellow pigment marks. By being able to look close at shrimp and find the ones with the biggest yellow marks and least red and breeding it with another, you would a more yellow shrimp (the yellow shrimp did come from cherries, so it makes sense). It happened randomly in populations of cherries, but with close up work of examining the 2 shrimp you would want to breed and getting an idea of the dominant and sub-dominant colors, you could eventually work out what the offspring might be like.
That's about the closest I've seen any documented work on shrimp anyways. I'm sure their are breeders out there with secrets that aren't sharing, but honestly, most of the variations we have now are just random shrimp that have popped up and then been line bred, back crossed, etc, to get what we have. There are lots of "1-off" shrimp that you see photos off, that look awesome but probably don't breed true and wouldn't without lots of work.
I think Rafel is probably onto something though with his color ideas and the pigments the shrimp can show close up. I've spoken with him lots of facebook about it, and although there is a language barrier, he seems to really know what he's talking about, most of it over my head, but I get the idea and photos like Auban's seem to confirm things like that. There is a dominant pigment, which we see, but also a smaller pigment that is there but not visible to the eye, but through selection, possible to breed in greater numbers and color intensity.
It's a theory anyways, but about the only we have out there right now. lol.