Dirt, ADA As etc, these will decline after a year or two in terms of nitrogen, the other nutrients will last maybe a decade? Not sure, I'm not going to wait that long either.
Fish food can supply most of the N as NH4 and NO3 if the bacteria get it first(not likely).
I think for a typical CO2 enriched tank, the fish waste would have to be quite high to destabilize things. But since we have 10-20X slower growth in non cO2 tanks, the demand can be met.
I do not think you need to over feed though, just keep a nice stock and feed routinely, add extra algae eaters if you want to add more waste/food etc. They at least do something and will convert the waste into NH4 faster.