I assumed the fish waste would fertilize the tank, I was wrong.
It depends on the type of plant & setup. Here's some folks growing basil in a hydroponics system
If you're just beginning, it's really most important to pick a method that suits what you'd like to accomplish, and follow the specs as closely as possible: from the right substrate type and depth, the amount & type of lighting, and following the feeding/maintenance schedule.
As you get more experience, you can tweak things based on your conditions and as your expectations/wants change.
There's some good folks here though that do just about every type/method of tank out there in the world of planted aquariums... so hopefully you'll find what you need.