They will eat baby shrimp, if they can catch them. badis are very deliberate eaters. They seemingly analyze the food, decide if they want it and then eat. My guess is that if the baby shrimp stay deep in some java moss, some will be ok. they will be hunted though.
Badis and live foods make for happy badis. Badis love to hunt and one to two week old shrimp are perfect prey for them. If tou have a huge colony of shrimp and a few badis then i wouldnt worry about it. Youll create a self sustaining culture within the two. However if you have a smaller tank with just a few shrimp then youll never see the colony grow. I have a 40 breeder with multiple species of badis as well as elassoma species with roughly 150 shrimp. I havent had to feed them for about a year now and my fish families have grown. Only problem im seeing now is, since my fish groups have multiplied my shrimp colony has not and im seeing less and less juvies making it to adulthood.